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IMiGt LISRAftY 6P PbUCATfOW 

UNIVERSITY Or CULiFORPM^ 

BE«K€LEY. CAUFO/»W»A« 



UC-NRLF 




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The educational principled and methods of the Philippine school 
system and their adaptability to the present needs of Siam 



By 

Bertram Bethuel Bronson 
A.B. (Nazarene University) 1915. 

THESIS 

Submitted in pp.rtial satisfaction of the requirements 

for the dep;ree of 

UAST-m OF ARTS 

in 

Education 

in the 

GRADUATE DIVISION 

of the 

UNIVERSITY OF CALIKPNIA 



Approved 



Instructor in Charice 
Deposited in the University Library 



Date Librarian 






ONPEPT- 



C OBTEHTS 



Preface • «»#9«>9f#p«. p.i-lli 

Introduction 

World's interest in Philippine colonial 

policy - principles of President McKinley - 

the ideals of the American school system in 

the Islands - the whole plan purposive - 

the chief characteristics of adaptability 

and plasticity - the influence of the 

school in occupation of '98 - breaking the 

ground for the Burenu'a work - freedom of 

teachers and staff - the work experimental - 

the teachers' interest - the Peoples' 

interest • the effectiveness of the Bureau 

of Education - its organization by Dr. 

BarroT?rs a marked success — p .1-10 

Chapter I 

The principles of the Hillippine System. 
1^. Principles. Adaptation to natural 
"Conditions end resources - an agricultur- 
al people ?/ith physical needs greatest - 
under bordens . 

2. Principles based on existing needs - 
no selfish motive in f'overnsaental plan - 
aim altruistic and well rounded (a) con- 
sideration of world markets in plan for 
development (b) develop.ient with exist- 
ing industries as basis (c) purpose in 
social developiiient (d) health considera- 
tions - various principles involved - the 
end of tJiia induistrical education - civic 
and social regenerallon important - the 
part played by health conditions 

3. Principles based on psychological condl- 
Tiona •• use of natural agencies to aid 



mental processes - the chief charactoristlcs 
of mind « racial and tribal hinderances - 
the three general directions of work: 

(1) development of strongest qualities 

(2) creation of new Int^irests (3) changing 
of habits - some native traits used »• basis 

of appeal - things to be changed ..•»•*.••••••• pp .11-28 

Chap ter II 

The Methods of Applying these Principles. 
Nature of the ca?gan of nethod * its offices - 
first methods of proceediu"'e - the teacher - 
the method of unifying the work - language - 
development of the syston - schools - the 
districts • co-operation of the people « the 
native teacher - his value and usefulness - 
practical methods used 1. tiio gradtial growth 
frori hcs-ne industries 2. progrssj^lve agricul- 
tural plans 3* social a^^enciea and methods 
4. methods of treating psychological conditions - 
some agencies In use.... .. •♦•♦«♦•#•*•• pp. 29-45 

Chapter III 

The Adaptability of these Principlos and Methods 
to the He© da of Siom* 

1. Natural conditions considered - the first 
gr-ound for applying the principles and methods 
of the Philippines (a) comparison :;s to geogra- 
phical location (b) Similarity in climate, 
topography, soil, and seasons (c) ccsnparlson as 
to products and honie industries at the time 
of the American occuj>ation of the P.J. (d) the 
two populations, racial traits, life, habits - 
the lingiiiatic aituotloi. (e) sane cawion points 
in historical backrTound. - religious influence 
in life • the part of aniiiiisin - tlie folk-lore, 
fetish and religious rites and of ft, rings. 
8. 'ilie Present Status of the Siamese education- 
al syst-em.- number of years organized - measure 
of its success by influence in nations * life and 
interest of the people - the organization - 



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mx0«r7i9lmk miA t«a«3iiisg f ai*ee » iRNHMSifts of 

leerxilna «• tools and laboratarla« • th« t&xt 

And methode of teaohlng « t^e profiuets of 

th6 ftohool •» opiniOQ ^ Prine* {>lt«<i»uloieo« 

3« A pi»Opot«d «^hi6tttioiHil pp9&»m» (a) pro-* 

posftl to take advontac© of the results of 

liiiA Phillppiao •tiAttWiw w th« dlreot value of 

flMMi^ pptnetpliBB and no^ods to Sla»M« « 

xmable to 800 truo ne«il owil fwiimlate woiPklns 

ia»*l8| <b) to boglsi y-eoosiAtxnieticm l»y stiip^l?* 

ixig « better 8iy?«rtl«ion « Ijotter training cr 

t#ft«liers « direet sjethode in te&#il»g praotloftl 

M^jootsi <o) r«vtalon of ryhol© eontent of 

emanMi ^ ehftn^ss from olidMiloal to prw^t4.&eiX 

instntotioa - oatlined 9U8ge»tioi28 • pp .46-65 



PREFACE 

The problem of education In the Par East has become 
one of vital interest to rae since ray journey throu^ 
Japan to China to the "Oriental Land of the Free", 
geographically designated as Siain. 'What impressed me 
most was the inadequacy of the existing schools to 
meet the needs of the masses of the people. As one 
teacher said in a Chinese College, "the people do not 
know how to use the simplest things of the sciences, 
arts and trades". But most striking is the utter 
failure of the schools to meet the needs of those 
people whose sustenance depends on the products of the 
soil. 

I feel justified in making this criticism, especially 
In relation to Si am where the people are almost entirely 
agrarian and partially nomadic. Tiieir needs are keen, 
not only in respect to physical development but also in 
r elation to purely intellectual ideas* There is not in 
this land the same intellectual craving among the people 
as in China and there does not seem to be a strong enou^ 



ii. 



Incentive in the present to stir the people to think and 
act. Many excuses have been offered for this condition, 
but they do not suffice, and in no way can reasons be 
offered as to why the system should fail to achieve as 
much as has been done In the Philippines where the people 
seem to be of the same stock as the Siamese and certainly 
have the same characteristics. 

My interest in the work among the Filipinos began 
while directing the work of the Nan Boys' Academy in 
Muang Nan, North Siam. It has been increased by the 
friendship of a few Filipino boys who are the products 
of the work, and it has been intensely aroused by the 
ccHTiparative study as this thesis was being prepared. 

I am indebted to many for valuable aid, especially 
to President David P. Barrows for the use of his fine 
collection of books, pamphlets, and catalogues on this 
subject. Further, to Dr. Lewis Hillis, for suggestions 
from a first hand knowledge of affairs, there is a debt 
of gratitude, as also for valuable suggestions for back 
ground reading for this interesting study* It has 
yielded personal satisfaction in that it has clearly 
shown that there Is a solution of the problem of ineffective 



lii 



unadapted oducation which la praotloal Instruction. 
It is the typa of public instruction that enlists tha 
interest and co-operation of the people as a whole, 
because it affects their well being. 



*♦***•*♦******* 



THE EDUCATIONAL PRIKCIPL*^S AND MTTHOC' S OF THE PHILIPPINE 
SCHOOL SYSTEM AND THEIR ADAPTABILITY 
TO THE PRESENT NEEDS OP SIAM. 

Introduotlon 

The eyea of the Diplomatic World were on America when 
In 1900 she undertook the task of governing the Philippines. 
They wondered concerning her colonial policy. Would she, 
like the European nations, make her mandate the opportunity 
for exploitation? When she proposed to make education the 
chief agency and the end the Ideal of democracy and demo- 
cratic thinking, we only invited contempt and gnt It. 
However, today the greatest Illustration of colonial 
development Is the scorned Idealism, and that because the 
first aim of the task was complete education and there was 
no selfish exploitation, no paternalistic government, and 
no mere sop in educational practice as ordinarily presented 
by governments to their subject people. America's task 
was not merely the building of the system from the ground 
up; It was preparing the ground. Removing the suspicion 



d 



againat the white man and hie oonduct In the orient « and 
the removing of the Filipinos' opposition to the Spanish 
Primary School System whioh they hated, waa the first 
step in the xindertaking. 

To-day the eyes of the Educational World are on the 
Filipino people, beoause a race, whioh was considered by 
commercial e^loiters an4 even by some enlightened Europ- 
eans as impossible of development, has perhaps had a 

more rapid economic development in two decades than any 

1 
other country, due to education. The policy stimulat- 
ing this is expressed in President MoKinley's address 
to the Philippine Commission, stating, "that the 
Commission should bear in mind that the new government 
was not designed for our satisfaction, nor the express- 
ion of our theoretical views, but for the happiness, 

3 
peace, and prosperity of the Philippine Islands," 

This spirit has permeated the whole machine of 
American governmental development, and has won the 



Paul Monroe, in Asia, January 1920, p. 81. 
3 
President MoKlnley, In Address by F. Crone, in 
H. E. A., 1915, p. 166. 



3- 4 



hearts of the people principally through the work of 
the eohool system. Thus they have been persuaded of 
our benevolent intentions and have so heartily co-oper- 
ated that there oannot be found a parallel polioy« and 
development in history. The core of the whole systen 
which has been so successful is, that the Bureau of 
Education in promoting "the happiness, peace and pros- 
perity" of these peoples « has prepared the people to make 
a happy living under the most practical conditions of 
democratic choice. The world is full of systems of voca- 
tional training but in no other case is there worked out a 
system which in its entirety is bent on making the people 
develop along their natural lines and use the natural 
tools and conditions as in the Philippines. Nor is there 
such a system of adapted Industrial instruction given with 
the intention of instituting democratic ideals. The 
system which in almost an arbitrary way is bent on teachtng 
the child to live is giving power of choice in the 
proper place. In this respect the educational policy 
which the United States has adopted in dealing with the 



1 

Filipinos is without a parallel in history. 

Philippine education is purposive. In the great 
plan of developing the people themselves the highest 
ideals have been chosen and the most praotioal methods 
of achieving them have been used. The political as 
well as the economic end is a free and capable people. 
The means of attainment is by education. "Those in 
charge believe it is the function of a public school 
system to prepare every boy and girl for the happiest, 
freest, and most efficient life possible in a sphere to 
whioh his actions will probably be confined." The only 
limit to the sphere of activity is the volition of the 
child or the economic condition of the home, for the way 
is ever open for him to rise to the highest place. The 
Philippines' middle class and political leaders are for 
the most part rising out of the once submerged low class. 
The two most characteristic qualities of this purposive 
educational system are its adaptability and its plasticity, 



1. 

Worcester, Philippine Islands Past and Present, V.^, 
p. 531. 
2 
F. Crone N.E.A., 1905, p. 166, 



In the first dB.y» of American oooupatlon, wherever tbe 
Amerloan flag k&b raised there a aohool wae started. At 
first the teacher was very often a soldier put to the task 
of Inetruotionj and in many oases the first pupils went to 
school at the point of the bayonet. General Bell, in 
charge of the Phill^^plne forces, said that the establish- 
ing of a school was worth as much as a company of soldiers 
in a town toward the establishment of peace.^ The early 
teacher was not hampered by traditions binding in other 
fields, but was free to adapt his instruction to the minds 
of the people. Too often he found the teaching of the 
"three H's" inadequate and almost always he changed his 
educational method that it might be adapted to the environs 

and conditions of the peoole, taking into account their 

2 
needs. Often he was forced to leave these only as a back- 
ground, laying emphasis on the teaching of crafts that 

i 

Goods, ?. Our Educational Experiment in the Philip- 
pines, p^. 4, 5. 
3 

Arnold, Education in the Philippines, p. 338. 



would iaprovo the homo life of the people, teaching eanitation 
to save life, and teaohlng English ae a basis for a large 
life through study. Thus the early system was the result *- 
of the personal contact of the taaoher and people » and it 
is from these and further studies in the field itself 
that the present system has grown. It is a oonposite - 
of reoonnendations of hundreds of teachers scattered 
throughout the Archipelaga, and these reports have 
been based on hard earned experience . The early adminis- 
trators also were tinhanpered by tradition and had only the 

govemnent to look to for direction, and so they aade it a 

8 
great ei^eria^sntal ground. Thus this systea built by an - 

adaptative growth has ever renained plastio, ar.d these two 

eleaents have ever kept the system of the highest usefulness 

and given the sohools an unprecedented plaoe in the hearts 

of tha iJ6or-le. It was the teacher's and siq>erintendent*s 

task also to know the needs and provide the material of 

learning to meet them. Tt was his duty to hold fast to - 

all that was best in Filipino oharaoter, and supplement it 



f- 

Worcester, Philippine Islands Past and Present, V.3, 
pp. 504, 505. 

a 

Orone, M. E. A.. 1915, 166 ff. 



8 



1 
with tha best we had to offer. And we kaow he went to 

3 
work to eolve the taska with an earnestneas unsurpasaed. 

Inside of a few years they won the favor and co-operation 

of the people whioh has resulted in insistent demands for 

more schools, even among the wild tribes of the Igorots 

and among the anti-ohristian Uoro tribes. A thousand 

sohools could be bisilt tomorrow and all filled were there 

fimds to carry them on and sustain a high standard. There 

are over six hundred thousand in the schools, about one Inin- 

dred thousand have been turned away inside a year and there 

are two or three hundred thousand who would like to enter 

but oannot because of economic conditions of the home th(t 

require their presence there rather than at the school. 

The school in many a town is looked up to as the pride of 

the town; it is the fountain of Inspiration; it is the 

3 
open door toward a better living. 



I 

Crone, National Educational Association, 1915, 167ff. 
2 

Ibid., 166. 
3 

Goode, P. Our Educational Experiment in the Philip- 
pines, pp. 4,5. 



9. 



This extensive work has been made possible only through 
the central organization of the Bureau of Fducation. But 
It is Interesting to note that the policy and organization 
of this Bureau has been the result of gradual crystalliza- 
tion of practical experience. It took permanent form in 
1903-4 under the direction of President Barrows of the 
University of California, then the Director of the Bureau 
of Education. It is one of the most absolute of bureaus 
in existence today. It is organized and equipped for 
effective work, and can carry out promptly and effectively 
the policies determined by the central office. At the 
same time it is still growing, still enlarging, still 
learning more of the people, their needs and th^ remedial 
agencies. The directors are most willing to get advice 
from the teachers and superintendents and forge the 
policies of the Bureau in accordance with these ideas 
given from the field of action. 

This Bureau through its years of service has brought 
about a profound change in public sentiment. It has creat- 
ed new ideals, new ambitions, new hopes. The Influence 
from the school has reached the home for not only 



10 



mental and physloal lmproT«nent , but also for moral and 
splritxMil. The change wrought has been of baelo im- 
portance to the country. The results gained are as great 
as they are because of the recognised need of changes that 
are fundamental. When at the first it was apparent that 
any educational system adhering cloaely to acedemi*^ 
studies would simply serve to perpetuate the poverty and 
servile conditions of the people, those in charge of the 
situation, being free to work out their beet plana, saved 
the situation by daring to ignore the force of tradition, 
and they have proved to be the savers of a people. 

Because of the marked success of this educational 
experiment we wish to make an analysis of the principles 
which were the basis of this exceptional m.ethod that the 
same principles nay be adapted to the educational needs 
of the people and schools of Siam. 



11 




Chapter I 

THF PRINCIPLES OP THF SYSTEM. 

The educatloiml policy of the Philippine Islands 
was not an assimilative policy. Its end was not be 



>-Six 



Americanize nor Anpflo-Sixonlze, but to make better Fll- 

1 
Iplnos. It did not aim to suppress native character 

nor sacrifice any of Its excellency. Its purpose was to 

help them to adopt and fit to their own conditions and 

purposes the common civilization of the Western world. 

Principles Involved Not only In the days of definite organlza- 
, Adaptation to Natural 

Conditions and Resources. tlon In policy and practice but In the ear- 
lier formative periods the teacher and 
supervisor and director saw the necessity of maklrpc the 
educational training adapt Itself to the natural condi- 
tions of the country. This meant at once the persuance 
of an agricultural program. 

At the time of American occupation the census showed 
that of 1,958,400 men engaged In occupations 1,145,230 



1 

Barrows, D.P., Fifth Annual Report of Director of 
Education, 1905, p. 15 



12. 



were fanners or farm laborers. The majority of these 

owned their own farms which were of an averap;e of about 

nine acres. "The hope of the school Is to solve this 

1 
problem of making better farmers." In spite of the fact 

that such a large part of the workers are independent land 
holders. In order to live and prevent starvation they are 
forced to borrow from the wealthy proprietors which means 
the continued mortgaging of the future. In spite of the 
richness of the tropical lands, the abundance of natural 
foods, and aids In development, the people were undernour- 
ished and unprotected, and thus continually subject to the 
ravages of disease. 

The first consideration, therefore, of this purposive 
education was to make the land serve and adequately sustain 
the people and the people develop the land as a foundation 
of a higher development. 

How absurd it would have been to neglect or Ignore 
the great question of agricultural development and train- 
ing when most of the people live in towns and villages 



1 
Barrows, D.P., Fifth Annual Report of Director of 
T^ducation, Philippine Islands, p. 16. 



13. 



at the edge of their rioe fields, and most of them are 

1 
very fond and careful of their little estates. 

But the laok of proper implements and also of the 

proper water supply make It Impossible for them to make 

a living and they must fall hack on day labor zor some 

large proprietor or have other income from a small 

family industry. In very few oases is the Filipino 

an Independent farmer and at almost all time he is at 

2 
the mercy of the money lender. 

Principles Involved. "Their betterment is the task of 

i. Principles of Education education in these islands. Very 
Based on Existing 

Needs of the differing policies have been held 
People. 

before the American Government in the 

Islands; policies of economic develop- 
ment by outside capital and Imported labor; of the grant- 
ing of large franchises » the creation of large corpora- 
tions; the development of a great commercial colony, but 
for the educator the ideal to be achieved here is that of 



I 

LeRoy, J. A,, Philippine Life in Town and Country, 
pp. 44, 71 

2 
Report of Philippine Commission, 1900, Vol. 4, p. 99. 

also LeRoy, Philippine Life in Town and Country, pp. 44,11. 



14 



a pprowlnif, thrlvlnp population, able to speftk a ccmmon 
lanf!!uap:«, two third a a^rl cultural, all economically Inda- 
p«nd«nt, owning the farma they till, trained to better 
method « of agriculture and industry, able to read and under- 
stand the newspapers, *>le to keep accounts, to figure out 
profits. Interest, c«MiBnl88lon and other simple matters of 
business; subsisting on a more varied and nutritious diet, 
living in better houses, in -rUlaines and towns with sanitary 
sources of water supply and sanitary systems for the dis- 
posal of sewerage; the government of which conmunltles the 
people shall understand and In which they shall actively 
and intelligently participate. These are the results 

which this Bure«%u is spending nine tenths of its thought 

1 
and effort to help attain." 

Practical instruction In relationship to the needs of 

the people «m we find them Is, then, the purpose of the 

system. The consideration of the mental qualifications of 

the people in this vocational syatero sill be discussed in 

the next general topic, number S. The considerations on 

which efficient instruction was first and Is still given 



Barrows, D.P., Fifth Annual Report, Director of Fdu- 
oation, pp. SO, 21. 



15 



are grouped as follows: 

a. Instruction in lines for production that will 
be recognized In the world's aiarketo. If the people are 
to prosper and develop they must have the encouragement 

of aohievement in world spheres as well as of the finandial 
returns themselves. 

b. Education must be along the lines of the preseil 
industries, and these lines of work already existing mus^ 
be developed as paying propositions to the people. In 
the faam industries, textiles and traders, or whatever 
crafts there may be, the aim of the Bureau of Education is 
to make them a means of livlihood, social and economic 
development, and character building. 

o. The school life mytst create a new social life 
and must bring a social unity. That will result in an 
intelligent participation in government by all, in other 
words, there must be universal suffrage. It must train 
for citizenship and must instill the true idea of publio 
service. 

d. The Department of Education must improve the 
health of the people by introducing new foods, instruotS^S 



16. 



In the care and development of the body, and also bring 
to the consciousness of the people the need and beneficial 
results of sanitation. 

In the producing of goods for a world market there 
are other elements than the immediate return of financial 
gain* It requires that they know the products that are 
marketable, and in what quantities. It teaches the pro- 
portion of production *nd also It challenges them to 
develop a real skill, that the articles produced may bring 
a fair profit* 

Ho considerable branch of exportation Is found which 

does not come from the vegetable kingdom, obtained in the 

1 
first instance by field labor. The hope, then, of the 

2 
nation is in the development of the peasant producer, 

the development of the land, the natural products and 

then those adapted, the natural resources such as water 

supply, and improvement in tools and methods. Where much 

was produced in the way of rice, cocoanut, sugar, etc., it 

was on the estate of the landed owner and by the tenants 



1 

R(»port of the Philippine Commission, 1900, Vol.4, p. 6 
2 

Barrows, D.P., Flghth Annual Report of Director of 
Mu cat ion, p. 9. 



17. 



on the Indebted peftsant proprietor. There was therefore 
no Inspiration to develop or to increase production among 
the masses who most needed Improvement. The hope for a 
free people Is their independence in aprioulture and the 
trades; and this freedom is the hope of the Islands* 
To awaken the dependent fajnner is no small task. Hie 
labor, such as it was, brought but little in returns to 
himself - to get him to increase his efforts therefore, 
he must see the benefits of hi& labor. This has been 
one of the principal objects of the educational develop- 
ment. Rome of the principles involved are, (1) to 
develop a sympathetic and enthusiastic attitude toward 
labor, (2) to cnoouratre industrious habits, (3) to teach 
the fundamentals of good craftsmanship, (4) to teach trades 
by which the pupil may live and improve his condition 
when he leaves school. The true end of the Industrial in- 
struction is (1) to teach character, the value of labor, 
skill, etc., (2) the development of local industries 
along the existing lines - improving natural products and 
methods, and, (3) the marketing of the products In a 
beneficial way. 



18 



Previous to 1698 there were onlj a half-dozen 
seoondary aohools In the Islands and these as well as the 

primary sohools were for the boys and girls of the landed 

1 
arlstocraoy, offering no chance for the masses. We hard- 
ly wonder that the Filipinos revolted against the rule of 
Spain when we see how surely she planned to keep th« pecrle 
servile. Woman's position was high, parallel to man's. In 
soolal life, in the house, and in business she was his 
equal. But they have never enjoyed the same educational 
privileges, and perhaps never will be entirely on the same 
plane, but the hope of the land, nevertheless, depends on 
educated womanhood. The purpose of the United States in 
respect to citizenship is to educate all the children and 
tbts produce a race with suffer&ge rights based on true 
literacy; to educate a body of leaders from among their 
own people t ready and able to govern with equity a long 
suppressed lower class; to educate and thus break down the 



Le Roy, Philippine Life in Town and Coimtry, p. 309 
3 
Bu-rrows, D.P, , Eighth Anntial Report Director of 
Education, "pp. 40. 41. 



19 



barrier between the upper and lower olaaaes by the creation 
of a democrat io middle olaae. The ohiaf obataole to eoolal 
and economic progresa was "caclqulan" or "boaalam". There 
waa no hope of true development until It should be removed 
Education of course la the agency, and the results attained 
are moat striking. The aim of the school Is to create a 
better home atmosphere, to make a new aplrlt In the home. 
In the community the aim has been civic righteousness and 
unity, by creating public spirit which centered from the 
first In the school and Its new activities, and now extends 
into all the country. 

The matter of Improving the health conditions has 
been for the aost part the concern of the Bureau of Edu- 
cation. From the first the teacher was as Interested In 
the life conditions of the people as he was in giving In- 
structlon. He realised that his work touched the whole 
life of the people, and that his work must affect and be 
sffccted by the whole of the social fabric. The first 
American teachers saw the pitiable poverty and constant 
hunger of the people. The helplessness of the people 



20 < 



In the midst of imllmlted resources was what put the 
teachers on their mettle. These resources were unrecog- 
nized and unused. Then, there was no co-operation in 

the system nor from the people, though all the teachers 

1 
were working for their betterment. Tlie alms that were 

conscious and developing were, (1) To Improve the diet 
of the people by Improving the local foods and their 
preparation, and by the Introduction of new foods to 
supply the lacking food qualities needed for a balanced 
diet. (2) To Improve the physique by better food and 
universal physical training. Many were going on by sheer 
force of will, since their bodies which were well formed, 
supple and enduring could not sustain them In the work 
to be done. (3) To Improve sanitary conditions, remov- 
ing the causes of disease and the agencies by which It 
spreads, and giving instruction in combating It in specific 
cases. (4) To overcome physical defects of eye, ear or 
any organ of the body, by means of pr':>ner medical atten- 
tion. 



1 

H. Miller, In National Educational Association 
Report, 1915, p. 1116. 



21 



To describe fully the conditions of the Filipinos 
at the time when our government took over the Islands is 
Impossible here, but suffice it to say that most travelers 
and dwellers in the Par Fast thought it impossible to 
ever bring such ideals as ti e Bureau proposed into the life 
of this backward race; and it was only because of in- 
vincible faith and Incomparable zeal, that, by steadfast 
labor, the government has practically accomplished its alms. 

Principles Involved This Purposive Education has for its aim the 

3. Psychological highest possible development of the natural 

principles based 

on the condition mental characteristics. This naturally la 

of the mind of 

the people. the result of the belief that mental character- 
istics are in accord with the natural surround- 
ings. If life conditions call for a struggle and the 
creation of new life habits then the mind will be by 
nature creative. But in the Philippines there is no 
demand for a conflict. All that is required to perpet- 
uate life la the development of the abundant resources. 
This simple adjustment to life does not make creative, 
but rather imitative minds. These strong social traits 
and the lesser ones also have had a great part in the 
present constructive system of instruction. 



3 



*» 



At first «oai« thought tha BX>8t diffioult problem 
would be to unify the very widely differing tribee or 
to adapt a mtMf aided syeteat to meet their individual 
social oharactsriotios. It wae soon discovered, how- 
ever, that the social stock is honogeneous - that the 
varying degrees of civilisation and praotioal diverg- 
ences £^re not as gr at as the social honogen^ity. 
The difference, as expressed among the tribes them* 

selves, are sore tsarked by the religious differences 

1 
than by tribal oharaotaristios. 

At first thers were no nieneral principles which 

were worked out by the Bureau of Education, but each 

teaoher and superintendent sought out the psychological 

basis for his work, and these findings were oolleoted and 

ttssd by the Diraotor in the educational policy which has 

since been followed. The most direct benefit gained by 

this initial work was the friwidship and good will these 

pioneers won from t he people. No such analysis as the 



1 

L« aoy, Ja«s», Philippine Life in Town and Country, 
p. IS. 



following has been put in printed form and yet these 
ideas are distlnotly seen baok of the Educational 
Program of the Bureau, and eapeoially after 1904 when 
the work was first definitely organized. 

From the view point of the mental condition of 
the people* the Bureau of Education followed three 
directions. These were not closely formulated thus 
but were nevertheless the directing principles. First, 
they were to use all natural mental qualifications poss- 
ible as the foundation for instruction. This of course 
recognized that the chief mental characteristics of a 
people would be of greatest value for the development of 
their natural surroundings. Second, they were to cre> 
ate new interest and arouse enthusiasm by showing new 
values in their old possessions, and by showing the 
possibilities of new things added to their life. Third, 
they were to supplant all habits or types of mental con« 
duct that hinder or distract, with positive forms of 
metatal conduct. 

Ur. Freer, an American teacher, wrote as early as 
1906 saying that the Filipino is eager to learn from 



24 



books ar«3 all other means. That when he has learned how, 

he studies very dlltf^ently. He la considered as mentally 

alert, with a passion for leamlnf^ that can be sustained* 

Furthermore, thflit he Is ea/rer to learn from us who have 

Vesteim civilization, and Is very reapp otful and obedient 

to his instructors. He is appreciative, docile, pjpntle 

1 
and dependent* 

These admirable characteristics, however, did not 

suffice as motive power to lift an undeveloped people and 

country to any considerable height of development. It 

was not, sufficient to stir the people from centuries of 

lassitude due to the tropical heat and bounty of nature, to 

the ideals and achievements that were for their own well 

being. It took some considerable study and planning to 

persuade them of the necessity of study and action of a 

new type if they were to obtain fpon their surroundings 

any considerable benefit. Their teachers, however, used 

this desire to learn and by coupling it with others made 

it serve them acceptably. The pronounced mental traits 



1 

Freer, W.B., The Philippine Experiences of an 
American Teacher, j. 275. 



25 



which they uaed were, (1) their natural Inqusltlvenesa to 

know about that which they do not understand, (2) their 

natural artistic and mechanical aptness, #ilch aided by 

Imitativeness and keen Imagination gives an easy ground 

for practical instruction. Couple these with their 

devotion to their little farm, their keen delight to work 

with tools or anything they can handle, and their eagerness 

for results that are immediate and you have the direction 

for the Bureau's policy. (3) The atmosphere in which they 

have lived was one of social freedom and they have felt but 

little social restraint even though they have been the 

1 
economic slaves of the small wealthy class. This spirit 

is strong and has a dominant influence in their conductJ 

Anything that will strengthen this feeling by added comfort 

or social distinction due to the same will spur them on to 

labor and study. 

The Pllipino has been accused of being lazy and shift- 

2 
less. This was true. It did not pay for him to be 

prosperous, for his earnings went to meet the demands of 

1 

Le Roy, Jos. Philippine Life in Town and Country, p. 65. 
2 
Foreman, J., The Philippine Islands, p. 180 



26 



the Church which taught him to give the fruit of his 
earnings to the cause of religion, or else to the one to 
whom he was perenially in debt. He was free in conduct — 
but he was ever a slave by political and industrial 
barriers. He did not care to learn; not because he was 
not anxious to know, but because it was of no advantage to 
him to know what the Spanish school taught. But immediate- 
ly when education became the doorway to better home con- 
ditions, to actual powor in participating in civic life, 
and in the elevation of his social position, he wanted the 
school. the son*s education soon meant freedom from 
debt and the removal of fears for the future, which things 
in the pnst he had stoically taken as a part of his lot. 
At first the boy wanted to be a clerk or small office 

holder — the height of all glory. However, being quick 

1 
of apprehension, he saw that the practical sciences and 

agricultural studies were the things which would benefit him 

most, and was willing to make the vocational studies the 



1 

The Report of Philippine Coramisslon, 1900, Vol. 2, 
p. 283. 



87 



centre of hie life training. That the Filipino was 

capable and worthy of the confidence of his American 

teachprs has been well demonstrated by his conduct In the 

past. That he would be able to see with a world vision 

was not expected in the psst, but this was due to the 

fact that he had but little to stimulate him to larger 

1 
views of life. 

In the newly created middle class there is a great 
spirit of fellowship and co-operation. The word associ- 
ation, seems to be a magic word with them. But in the 
old free and easy life where high and low rubbed shoulders 
in everyday intercourse there was a pronoxinced tyranny, 
even within the low class itself. There seemed to be no 
sentiment, honor, nor magnanimity — apart from the hospi- 
tality which was prided by fear. This geniality so marked 
and distinct was to him a life insurance policy which he 
used to guard himself from attack by others. so also, 
his Interest in others was often a cloak for his inner 
cowardice, by means of which he hid his own fears and kept 



1 

Foreman, *r.. The Philippine Islands, Vol. I, p. 184 



28 



watch on the actions of them. At times, too, it was 

merely uncontrollable curiosity. He seemed to show no 

heart response to his benefactor at first, and the first 

respect was that which he gave to one superior or brave 

1 
and daring. But he has changed in all these respects 

into an admirable and responsive friend. 

Briefly let us mention a few of the other outstand- 
ing features of his personality. He was exact in none 
of his habits, not knowing what it meant to perfect any- 
thing. He was fearful to the extent of losing all self 
control, he was vicious under a cloak of serene counte- 
nance. In labor he could go on for a long terra if the 
results were near and visible. But in nothing was he so 
constituted that there was no need of change either by 
development or substitution. 



1 

Le Roy, James, Philippine Life In Town and Country, 
p. 81 



29 



Chapter II 
THE MFTHODS OF APPLYING THFSF PRINCIPLFS. 

Organization - Although the foregoing principles were 

Nature of not all clearly expressed in the program 

the Organ 

of Method of the Bureau of Education, we find that 

the Director, his staff, the superintendents, 
»nd teachers working through this powerful organization 
were building on these principles and making direct prac- 
tical solutions for them as far as possible. Whether 
consciously or unconsoiously, the important part of the 
matter Is that they are gaining the ends to which these 
Ideals or principles pointed. Not only Is the organ of 
this Bureau a harmonious, co-operative body, hut it is work- 
ing in harmony and unison with the Bureaus of Public Health, 
Forestry, Agriculture and Lands, Commerce, and Printing 

and others. It is successful because of the proper recog- 

1 
nltlon and credit it gives Its officers. Its success among 

the people is that the schools are a part of the people and 



1 
Crone, F«, Report of National Fducation Association 
1915, p. 170 



so 



not Inatltutlons planted in their midst. 

The organization is centralized as follows :- 



Director of 
Fducatlon and 
two Assistants . 



( General 
( Office 



( Chief Clerk 

{ Accounting Division ) 



( Prope rty 
( Academic 
( Industrial 
( Building 
( Records " 
( Traveling Inspectors 
and Instructors 



tt 



"Experts 



AsaHs* 



Superintendents of ) 

Insular Schools, ) Heads of Departments 

Normal, Union and ) Instructors. 

etc. 



Division Super- 
( intendents 
( 



( 



Supervis- 
ing 
Teachers 



( 



Assistant supservis- 

Ing te«iohers 
Principals of cen- 
tral schools 
and intermediate 
schools not di- 
rectly under 
division super- 
intendents 
Principals of high and trade 
schools and intermediate 
schools not urder super- 
vising teachers - - - - 
Instmctors. 



Miller, H. Report of National Education Association, 
1915, p. 1116. 
2 
Crone, Sixteenth Annual Report of the Director 
Education, p. 10* 



31 



First Methods From the very first the suooess has de- 

of Prooedure. 
The Teacher. pended on the oversight and Initiative 

of the American supervising teachers and 
superintendents. Their task It vas to know the people and 
their needs, and to present these to the aunlolpal oounoll 
and Bureau for consideration. It was their task to win 
the favor of the people and be the social influence repre- 
senting the schools. In the early days their methods were 
not the teaching the "three R's" in the class room but he 
was In the home and in the Filipino's native haunts seaiolx 
Ing for ways to meet his crying needs. Here was the be- 
ginning of industrial education, agricultural Improveaent, 
and public life, including health and sanitation, Suob 
direct findings became the basis not only of the general 
direction of the educational policy but gave the material 

for the nature of the courses and the new series of text 

2 
books directly applicable to their local conditions. The 

native teacher wcta enlisted at once, and his training has 

developed with the systen. 



1 

Barrows, D.P, , Fifth Annual Report Director of 
Education, p. 42. 
Q 

Miller, H., in National Educational Association, 
1915, p. 1116 ff. 



6a 



Method oS At the first the eohool was oonfronted by the 

Unifying 

Work> problem of the many dialects. How oould in- 

Language 

struction and texts be applied to so many or 

how would they ohoose one to apply to all? These were 

impossible of solution as they were, for the task of 

learning the languages and supplying the texts was an 

utter impossibility, as also was thelbiope of getting all 

other tribes to accept one dialect. On the other hand 

English is the business dialect of the Orient, the best 

business and trade journals are in English, the teachers 

must be taught in English, and the Administration had to 

1 
be in the hands of competent foreigner!* Perhaps, next 

to the direct influence of the teachejr and superinten- 
dent, the use of English has been the g.^«atest factor in 
the development of the Phillipines. It has aided in all 
lines of educational development, and especially has it 
been a means of arousing new interests, of unifying the 
people, of giving a world consciousness, and creating 



1 
Parrows, Annual of American Academy of Political 
Science, 1S07 , 30:74. Also Marquardt, W.w, , Department 
of Distribution or Education, 1918, pp. 36, 37. 



33 



larger narketa as channels for surplus production. It 

is needless to say that the use of English ^s nade the 

teaching of the sciences and arts a sucoess^and very easy 

for the reason that It gives an exact langtmge for one that 

has very few technical terms. The method of teaching 

£ng:lish is in itself very interesting. The boy comes to 

the class with no knowledge of the school or the language. 

But by constant use he learns class directions in a few 

days and then by chart and pricer he learns his knowlsdge 

of other subjects and to read, write and speak at the saae 

time. His ioproveiaent is JKirvelo\is. Inside of these three 

1 
years he can now learn to speak English very well. 

Method of At present there is no tiae for Inflexible 

Development 
of The System courses or theories of sduoation. There is no 

rest, but there is constant growth and development. Con-> 
tinuous surveys of home life, agriculture, Industry, busi- 
ness, and political conditions continx;cally formulated new 

3 
courses. As the condition of the people change so the 



I 

Barrows, D.P. , Eighth Annual Report of Director of 
Education, pp. 35-36. 
3 

Uarquardt, W.W. , Report of Director of Education, 
1918, p. 38. 



educational method undergeee transition. The training in 

everyday arts that build a better, saner, and higher 

daily life is largely sought by the pupils, and they give 

1 
good account of themselves as workers. Such growth and 

development on the part of the pupil demands a greater 

development on the part of the school. The i^^ost Intelli- 

r> 

gent work in the world is being done rigiht here. 

At first simplest methods were used, along with the 
general education, to teach the pupil to improve his looil 
lnd\JLStry and thus his general surroundings. By 1904 the 
system was fitting the pupil in a three year course for 
citlsenshipi fitting him for everyday business transac- 
tions; was purposing to give him a large view of world 

3 
life by geography within the primary school. The inter- 
mediate school was enlarging to training in civil govem- 

1 

Goode, J., Our Educational Experience in the Philip- 
pines, p. 10. 
2 
Ibid., 11. 
3 

Barrows, D.P., Outlook, V. 80, p. 869, article by 
Le Roy. 



35 



z' 



ment, history, etc., with three years of elemeatary 

selenoe, and shop, and garden work. The secondary school 

was formed more after the pattern of our American High 

School, but w«g more for technical or semi-professional 

1 
schools. By 1915, the Ideals and the desires of the 

people had made such gre^t growth that the whole course 
had to be changed from the primary to the secondary, and 
a University and Normal school had been developed. The 
change of Ideals was the result of practical Instruction 
which definitely reacted In the people's lives. Indus- 
trial, agricultural and scientific training had become the 
center of all the school activities. The Primary still 
had Its work In English and the practical subjects deal- 
ing with health, sanitation and citizenship, but the 
emphasis was on preparation for life and the method was 

that of training In the local Industries, manual training 

2 
and agriculture. The Intermedlit© school has become a school 

which, like the Primary, Is complete In Itself and fits 

for life. 



Barrows, D.P., Article by LeRoy, Outlook, v. 80, p. 870. 
2. 
Crone, P., Article In National Fducatlonal Association 
1915, p. 169. 



36 



Hero they apeoialize in fanning « trading, doxeetio soienoe, 

1 
cocui^erciaX and te&ohing oouratts. But this laat is faat 

being advanced to Secondary standing. The Seoondary School 
has come to follow very closely our Aiserioan High School^ 
hut they are giving courses in surveying, oommerce, naviga- 
tion, agrioulture, trade and normal work which are leaking 
•pecialists in these practical lines. The work of the rjni-* 
versity is very intereetii^ in that they do not aet the re- 
quiressenta for the preparatory schools but supplement thsir 

work, laying ewphasls on Pliillppine Education and preparing 

1 
men to develop the present type of work. The work here ie 

a preparation to develop the resources of the Islands, and 
no loan can reach the University iintil he has had soatt 
training in the industries or arts and crafts of the coun- 
try. 

The original plan was to organise every Christian 
province into School Districts under the supervision of 
•upervisors and tesohers, and in every municipality and 



I ■ 

Crone, F. Article in Rational Educational Asao- 
olation, 1915, p. 188. 



37 



1 
large barrio (village) to have a sohool. But the limits 

have proved too narrow, for today while the Igorot is 

hunting the head of hia neighbors, his boy ie going to 

a farm or trade sohool eager to learn and bringing the 

3 
fruits of his labor to the family store. No program 

is needed to push the int^^rest or create a demand for 
sohools. The only hindrance ia the laok of funds and 
teachers to oarry out a mora extended work. The people 
are voluntarily giving and building the sohool houses 
and are taxing thetaselves for this greatest of all 
interests in their lives. To start a sohool all that 
is needed ia a teacher - th3 people will help get at 
least a temporary building, and the pupils will come. 
There is no ne?2d of laws foroir*g attendance or pro- 
hibiting delinquency. They love the sohool. 

Educational The suooess of this extended system was 

Method - the 

Native teacher largely dependent on the training and ability 

of the Filipino teacher. Without the American Super- 
vision the present success "vould never have been known. 



1 

Parrowe, D.P, , in address by Le Roy in Outlook, 
V. 80:387, August 5, 1905, 



Z 



Barrows, D.P. , Report of Director of Education, 
1908, pp. 45-50. 



36 



But to make a sygtern for the people with universal suf- 
frage and freedom as Its aim, was, and still la entirely 
out of the question If attempted alone by foreign teachers. 
Hire is where the native teacher was used, and that will- 
ingly, thoup;h he was at a gr«Jat disadvantage because of 
lack of training. The first director and his aides, the 
superintendents and teachers, found very few who were able 
to be used as they were.. But the Filipino was eager to 
learn, and so the method of studying one week the things he 
imparted to the children the next, by special instruction in 
mssemblies, by pamphlets and special agencies he has proved 
himself worthv of the faith put in him. The Bureau has 
paid special attention to this phase of the educational de- 
velopment, and by improvement of standards, the advancement 
of opportunities, and the creation of a fine social at- 
mosphere, has created nothing short of a miracle in the 
teaching profession. 

Practical Let us examine briefly the methods our teachers 
Methods used 

and I^reau used in creating inspiration, developing 

the latest possibilities, and in lifting 



39 



the tvhold piano of tha xiation&l life. The course 

folloved in the whole prograa ehowe conclusively the 

value of Vocational Sduoation, that the best way to are»te 

educational interest and oarry out the intellectual develdp-^ 

meat is to use those things provided in the natural surround- 

in«;s as the instruoents of ;sethod. 

X. The home wis in dire need. The teaoher saw the 

neoosftity of adding to its earning power. He saw that 

where they made hats, Ittoe, cloth, or otner native arti- 

1 
olee In the spare hours that the sondltions were better. 

So into the sshool oane the'^ork of the land and its values 

were estioated, its costs and pra.ctir>ility aooounted, and 

«h6r 3 of real worth it was developed hy the sohocl. The 

returns at first went to the teaoher, then to the boy or 

girl, then the work was developed in the hone and enooijuraged 

if worth while by exhibitions and exportation. These 

home industries developed skill and i^^ere the foundatione 

for greater aocotaplishiaent. They give the ne-eded returns 

for inspiration, they inoreased by their earning power 

the conditions of the hone. They aroused a new attitude 



1 

Barrows, D.P., Report of Director of Education, Phil- 
ippine Islands, 1933, p. IG. 



40 



toward labor -beginning th&t transformoktlon whloh it taking 

the false ideals of aohlevement away. Where possible these 

native Industries have been developed so that there is a 

larger produotion and better quality and a growing world 

■arket for these honie and school products. The need of 

olothee for oold children has called for practical sewing, 

the elevation of ideals has created a desire for chairs, 

tables and other art idea of household use, and thus there 

have been added the isanual training courses and the shop 

courses of other industrial types also. So has grown up 

ft system of education that in Its Prlaary school strives 

to make each hoae a center of production. 

aohool 
8. And so also with the/ garden which produced only 

a few vegetables on a snail impracticable scale at first. 

In this school garden with its little plot ,there was 

developed a new attitude toward labor. The teacher taught 

and worked with the boys and the boys took the fruits of 

their labor home. And then came the home gardens with 

school supervision which bore substantial gain to the 

grower, and new and more nourishing food to the people. 

Even the preparation of this in a way that is palatable 



41 



has been a work of the aohool. This work led to the Im- 
portation of foreign seads and the adoption of .i«w methods 
of garden work. And this little sohool industry has de- 
veloped by the means of instruction, circulation of pam- 
phlets, organization of clubs, with contests, prizes, and 

fairs until good products can be obtained all over the 

1 
islands. And then it has reached beyond - to the farm 

school with improvement in farming methods - the agricul- 
tural school with specialists teaching every branch of 
useful agricultural, horticultural and animalhusbandry methods 
in a practical way - the University creating its spec- 
ialists. 

3, In the earliest days English was made th« 
language of instruction and very successful it has been in 
unifying the peoples of many dialects. Besides this has 
hadd the means of bringing the people the benefit of the 
western learning and life interests. One cannot under- 
stand the tine value of this until he has sef?n the barren 



1 
Barrows, D.p, , Report of Director of Education, 
1904, pp. 33-3. 



4S 



lift of the peoples of the tropica • l^filleh at once 

gttve the Filipinos intercourse with the great trade 

of the Par Fast» and brouprht to his mind new interest 

of life, and ways to grasp them. 

Moreover, the home was crushed In nany many oases 

I 

by debt, or by unjust social and political standards* 

But as soon n« the son or daughter learned the principles 
of trade, of ecRBaissions, percentap;e, tax, and the rights 
and duties of oltisenship there began to be a chanf?s which 
hftc today wiped out nany of the evils* So, not only is 
the home a center of industry, improving living conditions, 
but It may also be the center of a modem trade, improving 
irapl««ente, or doing extensive gardening and farming* 
And also within its walls nay live a son, the Justice of 
the city or town, who by his sympathy to lift his own, and 
his new knowledge of rights, has overcome the arrogance of 
the selfish aristocracy* To tell of all the things used 
by the school for the training in citizenship would bo 
Impossible, but we mentlwi the agrloilturo and other such 



1 

Barrows, D.P*, Articles by Le Roy in Outlook, v* 
80; 871, 1906. 
2 

Barrows, D.P,, Report Director of Education, 1908, 
pp» 16-7 . 



48 



clubs, th« dab&tlng^ tho school organisation Itself, and 
psrhaps ths most Important of all ths sytea of athlstlos 
which has created a wonderful spirit throughout ths Islands, 
•nllstlng the interest of praotloall/ all the people, as 
forces working directly In their lives. 

Vs Bust mention In passing the methods used for Im- 
proving the physical health and the sanitary conditions of 
the land. At first the teacher often fed the J^ungry 
children who were poor and undernourished. Thenokae the 
added income In the home fron Industries encouraged In tke 
hones and the production of better foods In the gardens. 
The school staking advantage of these Improvements ^taught 
them how to use the foods to advantage by oooklng courses 
along the line of their own cooking methods. tn addition 

the teacher by his own efforts saved life in the great 

1 
epidenloft; they taught the care of the body and the gaiuurd** 

Ing of the health by everyday habits; they made the practical 
sowing to serve the needs of all; they developed the inter- 
est in^physloal sducatlon until they have about a 100^ 



Uiller, H. in Rational Sducatlonal Association, 1915, 
p. Ills ff . 



44. 



1 

participation In the schools: and also are guarding 

against physicf.l defects of the pupils. 

4. The methods have been for the using or develop- 
ing of the best possible mental characteristics. The 

shop and craft work have developed the artistic, the 

2 
mechanical and the admirable Imitative characteristics. 

By these means mental accuracy has been developed, and 

the perseverance developed is worthy of praise. In the 

school garden love for property and nature have had 

great encouragement, and love for the soil and interest 

3 
In returns have found satisfaction. Since the school 

"brought the raassei into contact with the world's activity, 

never has there been a lack of inspiration or for Interest 

in large affairs. Rather the Department of Fducation 

Is pressed for ways to meet the demands for extension. 

In place of the confiising fear there is ability end 

self reliance. In place of a detrimental individual- 

ism there is an efficient co-operation, team work 



1 

Miller, H. in National Educational Association, 1915, 
pp. 1116 ff. 
2 
Barrows, D.P. in Annals of American Academy of 
Political Science, 30:79. 
3. 
LeRoy, Jas., Philippine Life in Town and Country, p. 77. 



45 



And civic asBOoiatlon. No longer does fatalism limit 
the mind to the customs of the past for now the Filipino 
has a vision of a hotter land and an ability to go on till 
he hftS reached it. And now, they have a pride in their 
homes, schools, government, roads, and never will they 
be willing to be ignorant and poverty-stricken again* 
Briefly, some of the agencies uted are the farm 
school, farm settlements homesteading new places, rural 
credits, removing usury and debt, extension work in all 
producing lines, home gardening, fruit growing, animal 
breeding, plant and seed distribution, food conservation, 
markets and fairs. Pamphlets to clubs, sale of products 
of schools to the people and outside markets, sea pro- 
ductions, silk production, and many other helpful activ- 
ities and agencies including libraries, shop, Inborato- 
ries, all of a fine standard and well equipped. 



1 

Miller, H., in National T^ducational Association, 
1915, pp. 1116 ff. Also Foreman in National Fducational 
Association, 1915, p. 1156. 



40 



Chapter III 



THF ADAPTABILITY OP TIII^F PHINCIPL^S ARD MrTHODS 
TO THF WWS OP SIAM. 



The vulu© of the principle* and methods of the 
Philippine School System is that thoy are successful 
In the purpose of the p;ovcmraent to dovolop the people 
and the country for their hl'^eet good. This signal 
■ueoess is due to the faot that the builders of this 
system have formulated these principles and methods 
out of the existini; life conditions and habits of the 
people. How, we wish to apply these resiilts to ths 
people of Siam« their needs, «nd their schools* The 
first consideration is, therefore, - arc the Siamese 
sufficiently like the Filipinos In temperament, their 
natural surroundings so similar, and their life relation- 
ships to environment enough like those of the Islanders 
to warrant the adaptation of the artenoles of the Philip- 
pine Schools to the same phase of work in Slam* 

Let us consider first of all the natural conditions 

of Slam, which are similar to those of the Philippine 



47. 



Islands. (a) The first consideration is the geographi- 
cal situation. Siam is a continuous country, having 
no islands, and lies between degrees four and twenty-one 
North Latitude, which is the exact position of the 
Philippine Archipelago, lying just to the east of French 
Indo-China. It is a peculiar fact that these countries 
are of like extent. The defining of the location brings 
us to our second consideration, (b) , the topography, 
climate, soil and seasons. 

Though Slam, unlike the Philippines, is one continu- 
ous country reaching alwiost to the Chinese border on the 
north, and down the Malay Peninsula almost to Singapore 
on the south, still its topography is very similar to that 
of the Islands. Slam has one great river bnsin which 
is not comparable to anything in the Islands because of 
their small areas. But apart from this, we find they 
both are countries with comparatively high mountain 
ranges dividing fertile valleys and plains. In both 
instances we find, too, that this physical condition 
affects the climate and the people. Speaking in general, 
in Slam, the climate is very hot with a very humid depres- 
sing atmosphere which varies but little in the course of 



48 



the year. As one ffoea south it Intensifies In heat, 
with less chanp;e, while the opposite to the north. 
But In the hill and mountain districts there Is a change 
which Is very marked and which, in contrast to the lower 
levels, or southern areas Is very cool - even cold at 
times* This description exactly corresponds to the 
climatic conditions of the Islands. 

Practically all the mountain valleys and coast 
plains have been jtmRle regions, and consequently the 
heavy soil is very rich with the decomposed Jungle vege- 
tation. In many places there are rich volcanic deposits, 
and in others, the soil la a heavy clay which has pro- 
duced crops for centuries without artificial fertiliza- 
tion. Such, briefly describes the general character of 
the soil of both lands mentioned, and under the quicken- 
ing powe>r of the tropical sun they produce rapidly and 
abundantly. I*uch might be said of the rich mineral 
deposits of Slam and the Philippines, but it is sufficient 
to say here that these natural resources, which are great 
and valuable, have hardly been touched to date. 



49 



Pvery traveler of the "^nst knowa the horrors of 
the ChlnA Sea d\ie chiefly to the monaoon and typhoon* 
To the eaat of the 8c« lias the Philippines, and to 
tha west. Slam* Both are In the trail of these season* 
al winds, and thus the eeasona are correapondinpily the 
same* They have the intensely hot season, at its worst 
in Aprils followed by the equally as marked rainy season 
when everything Is flooded, and between these periods 
from ^otober to February is a season when the only 
moisture is the heavy dew, or that artifioally applied 
by irrigation* though this is the coolest part of th« 
year and the best for food production the soil becomes 
so dry that it oracka and beoomea extr«neny hard* 

(o) The fact that the Piliplnoa arc primarily an 

agricultural people hit been clearly indicated above* 

1 
This is none the leas true of the Siamese* Like the 

Pilipinos were at the time of the American occupation 

their chief diet is rice with a few native vegetables 



T 



SDth Century Impressions of Slam, p* 135 ff* 



50 



and an abundance of tropical fruits • The products that 
are similar may be described as follows J those culti- 
vated, which are rice, tobacco, hemp, com, various native 
vegetables and tropical fruits; natural products are 
bamboo for houses and various arts, hard-woods as teak 
in Siara, and ebony in the Philippines, and various fruits 
and materials gathered out of the jungles; and finally 
the manufactured articles of cloth — some wonderfully 
woven, carved articles, silver work, basket and mat weav- 
ing from bamboo and other products, and aatlve pottery 
for local use. In both lands the homes are principally 
of bamboo as are most of the fixtures and implements 
for home use and field service. 

(d) I believe if an average Pillpino stood beside 
an average Siamess that the untrained eye would not be 
able to dlstinfruish any racial difference. As races 
they are almost identical in physical qualities. They 
stand on the whole *out medivim height, are slight but 
strong and have the Malaysian type of face and eye 
rather than the Chinese. It has been the habit in both 



51 



Instances for the people to build their vlllagea In 
little groups by the edge of their rlqe fields, on the 
banks of the rivers and streams, or by the sea-shore. 
The implements of home and farm no leas than the housei 
themselves are identical. The home, too, is elevated 
on tall poles with floors and walks of split bamboo 
and the iv>of of thatch or nlpa. Almost invariably the house 
is situated in a private jungle of banana palms, cocoanuts, 
mangoes, guavas, etc. There are many other points of 
likeness such as his amusements, etc., which might be 
emphasized; but to fail to mention the high position 
accorded to the woman, the clean moral ideals and good 
standards of living, the seemingly unfailing good will 
and hospitality ,and finally the stoicism and cowardice 
which are manifest together, would be to ignore those 
qualities for which both peoples are noted. The mental 
likenesses which both possess have been discussed in 
Chapter I, Section 3, on Psychological principles* 

As to the American educator the languages or dia- 
lects of the Philippine tribes offered obstacles, so 



oc 



those of Slam do, and will continue to place serloua 
hlnderances to an adequate education. The Siamese 
problem deals only with two main dialects In Its efforts 
to reach the majority of the people, hut, as In the 
Philippines, there are numerous mountain tribes with their 
linguistic peculiarities. The difference Is great in 
some Instances, for example, while the two chief dialects 
are tonal and very much alike, some of the smaller tribes 
have no tones at all. Two other difficulties to be over- 
come are, firstly, to ^t one tribe to pive up their 
dialect for another - which is impossible, and secondly, 
to translate adequately the texts for use into this 
language, which is descriptive and lacks exact and 
technical terms . 

(e) There are a few Interesting points In refer- 
ence to the historical background of these peoples that 
may be pr* esented at this point in the comparison. 
Perhaps these facts and theories may help us to under- 
stand the many strong points of resemblance. It is 
claimed by many that at one time the Philippine Archi- 
pelago was a part of the main land of Asia and that 



53 



the inhabitants settled on this part of the Continent 

iihile still intact. But there are facts, both from 

the tradition of the Siamese and Laos tribes of north 

Slam, and also records in Chinese history which show 

that many centuries before, these Thai (Siamese and Laos) 

1 
lived in China south of the Yangtse River* And, 

further, we can fir-^. today these people so similar to 

the Filipino in physical and mental characteristics 

have migrated to South China, French Indo-Chlna, Burma, 

and into the south of Slam on the Malay Peninsula. 

Again, claims are raad« definitely and unquestionable 

to the fact by many authorities that the Filipino is a 

Malaysian. This Is based on the argument of types. 

Influences In the language, and the habits and character- 

2 
istlcs of the racial Inheritance. The same claims may 

be made for the people of Malaysian Peninsula, the Siamese, 

and their brothers and kin to the north. Not only does 



J- 

Freeman, J.H. An Oriental Land of the Free, p. 13 
2 
Atkinson, Fred W. The Philippine Islands, pp. 58, 59, 
258, 294. 



54 



their location and habits prove thlg, but the Influence 

of the Malaysian language la felt In the Siamese as well 

1 
as the Filipino tongues. It may be well to mention In 

passing the Influence of the Indlonese, of whom the 

Philippine Commission say that they had a great Influence 

In elevating the Filipino standards of life, and committed 

to writing the spoken tongues. This la exactly what was 

accomplished when the priests and peoples of Burma and 

India moved east over Slam to the borders of the China 

Sea. Slam today has these Influences, which played a 

2 
pronounced part in the history of the Philippines. 

For over two thousand years Buddhism has been the 

nominal religion of Slam and for about three hundred 

years, Christianity through the Catholic Church has been 

the faith of the northern islands, while Moharamedism has 

been that of the Moro In the south. But the real belief 

of all has been, and still is, to a great degree, animism. 



1 

Cartwrlght, B.O. In Twentieth Century Impressions of 
Slam, p. 218 
2 

Freeman, J.H. An Oriental Land of the Free, p. 15. 



60 



This is the powor that has swayed the lives of "both 
peoples and ha 3 been the ground of fears, retardation, 
and false aims which have prevented the enlarging of 
their vision and lives. In the Philippines the work 
of the schools and the missionary enlightenment have 
removed these barriers, but as yet the Siamese are not 
free because their educational system is overshadowed 
by animism in the guise of the State Religion - Buddhism. 

The folk-lore and habits of daily life are 
amazingly alike. To read of the conduct of the Filipino 
in his daily tasks has often made me see pictured in my 
mind the life of the Laos of worth Si am. So also in 
their religious rites and ceremonies, and in their 
fetish there is something strangely familiar. Perhaps 
it is the coranon idea of soul stuff and spirit occupation 
of all matter which is back of all animism which has 
brought similar results. However, the problem is a 
vital one still in the way of an education that v/ould 
liberate the spirits of the Siamese to grow and enlarge 
into a useful people. 

Taking into consideration the above facts which 



56 



Show ooncluaively the oneness of tho problem of the Siamese 
with the Philippine, it is safe to proceed to the evalua- 
tion of the existing system, and propose a plan of recon- 
struction, adapting the principles and methods so effect- 
ive in one to the like situations of the other. 

2. The Present Educational Situation in Siam* 
The system and tho schools of the Siamese are now fashion- 
ed after the classical institutions of England, and 
Germany- This prdsent system, as it is being developed 
today, has been in vogue about the same nianber of years 
as the Merican have been in the Philippine Islands. If 
we are to measvire the success of the former as we have 
the latter, i.e. in terras of the beneficial returns in 
the national life, or by the interest the people have 
taken in the schools, we must recognize and declare that 
it has failed in the aim of all true education - to fit 
for life. Tliis does not necessarily mean that no good 
is accomplished, for a general education has beneficial 
results in the Orient as well as the Occident. 

The Organlaation of the School System is centralized 
under the direction of the Minister of Education at 



57 



Bangkok • Tills, as all other branches of the govern** 
raent, is under th© direct influence of tlie King and 
subject to his wlll» This status, therQfc»»e, makes 
the school a branch of government without freedom to 
develop as it is deemed best • making It an instru- 
ment of a person rather than a people. It is hard to 
tell how much or how little liberty the central office 
or Ministry has in the educational policies, or how much 
they are permitted to use the counsel and direction of 
their foreign advisor. next to the Minister, we have 
supervisors of large districts, and then the supervisors 
of the smaller districts under these. Over each school 
is the master cr principal with power of local super- 
vlsicm. 

The weakness of the organization is not in the 
machinery but in the fact that, although there are some 
good men at the task, the Siamese do not seem to know 
the principles and methods that will meet the peoples * 
needs. Further, they have not the genius to gather 
materials, construct practical lines of work, and adapt 
these to the circxamstances of the people. Then, too, 
in estimating the weakness of the system, it must be 



noted that thm^ io no «xt©naiv© pro0nwi t« lagpfroire tii© 
^••chor ao he tralii»dl «Qd dissected tander th« Hiilipipln® 

Srn«Qt efforts are belxig mad* t« tr&ln t6t>.eh€«Ni in 
th» sonaal school* speolal Institutions tx»ftiB Is zaediolnvn 
l«w» military aoionoe, etc. But liwpy little effort i« 
lieing iia4« to devolc^ farm schools > nnd ts^ie&o h^ave met 
with littl© favor and have had lnftii»«llftte support* 
Bire Is the only plaoe the vHter feels like being <»^s»«p* 
ioosy foP, the only way the people ee e wliole e«in bt 
helped Is hy 1iM« hranoh of t3!*8inine>(»nd still the texta 
sad tools the i^nreamsABt uses in tliis speeial sehool are 
iaftde<|it»tey in pex^ aideeval or prifaitlve* 

Situoh mi0a^ be anQpssted for iPiprcfvenent of the 
l^resent toxte, for mam^la^ to ee&ae prlntiii^ fiction eaft 
nyth as actual facts, and the careful «rr«n|piinnt t^ 
historical fae*.8 m te their rifgKxi crder or proper 
esqliesis* Scuds bettei* taethod mt^A he found in the 
Mithed CdT inetiniotion over the Qemmt lectxire laithods 
llied in classes of elininiary stexidard« 

'ShM products of the school are the aMiare of iimir 
value to the naticn* Today^, outside of the tn^ofessicnst 
the sohoo3^ is*e producing a nation of clerks » and milltas<7 



I 



i 



I 



59 



or pollijloal officers. The only hop© the average 
pupil has is to be a clerk* The only tMng that most 
desire is government service with brass buttons and a 
title. The system definitely aims to prepare men to 
fill the governments offices, and it is succeeding* 
But it is failing to develop the possibilities of the 
land in the linos of its natural resources and i7ealth« 
which objective alone can succeed permanently, and b© 
of value to those whom the school should serve. 

No attempt has been made here to describe the details 
of organization or the forms which we know to be well 
worked out. The value of the system we realize does 
not depend on the mechanics, but on the personal and 
practical elements. 7/ith this thought in mind we will 
give some suggestions for the reconstruction of the 
aystan using the existing organizaticwi as the foundation 
or point of departure. 

3. A Proposed Educational Program. 

(a) Because the conditions in Siarn exactly corres- 
pond with those in the Philippine Islands, vie are able 
to \ise the methods and principles of the latter in 
meeting the former's need, and use these in construct- 
ing a progressive program in industrial education 



1 



i 



60 



with the aim of lifting the whole life of the people* 
This is not a ne>7 study, but the reconsideration of 
one made by the Siamese themselves* They have mad© 
scBiie excursions into the educational program of th© 
islands, and have considered many phases of the activ- 
ities of Hiilippine Education. If they have seen those 
things which have done so much for the people as a whole 
they have ignored them in making aijy application to 
their own educational problerafl. 

(b) Educational reconstruction must begin with a 
change of aim or purpose. The system must change 
radically as to the service it renders. A progressive, 
producing, and competent people must be the product of 
the schools instead of men with false ideals of achieve- 
ment which are now sent out. 

The first step in beginning reconstruction must be 
to supply a better supervision. \^thaut hesitancy, the 
supervision of all branches of work by ^Ajnerican teachers 
is recommended. Next in order is the improvement of 
teachers. American or foreign teachers are needed only 
for special lines of instruction, while it is necessary 
to use the native to re; ch the numbers and to diss^iiin- 
ate knowledge among the masses outside the schools. 



i 






61 



Assemblies, conferences. Institutes and all such 

agencies are needed with carnpulsory attendance fca:* 

the teacher • Par greater is the need of the direction 

of an >toerican or European teadier or supervisor to aid in 

every-day matters, and likewise, there is a need for 

texts on teachers courses giving thorougih instruction 

in the subjects they teach. These improvements would 

mean the changing of the methods of teaching which is 

essential to any real advancement. 

(c) The most important recoiamendation we make is 

the revision of the whole content of the general courses. 

Or the whole system. In fact, must be changed from a 

classical type to one of practical instruction. We 

have spoken of this befofo, but here make specific 

suggestions for such plan with Idea in mind of immediate 

operation and effectiveness. 

1. Agriculttiral activities. Center 
A. Practical Instruction 

having power to stimu- instruction in garden work and 
late interest and act- 
ivity, teaching with definite advantage 

to the people. Enlarge the home 



J 



oeod!}« ote*, ^ii<^ »»9 ftl}MNitf3r appli«» 

of local ini3ttst3do» irkpMgvsA to ^»efal 
^gPtt* Iftlliigglnc to trad9s saA unt mmm 

t«3KU of th« fhilipyiiii mwmu «r MMi» 
oati«ii« 

§« ^Ivle «s»Sl SQOial ittstsniotloD* E&lar|S6r3«nt 
«i ps*«8«ant ooian^* in Bimmm «7»t«B with 
pmetieetl applieatioti in ftliibdy gnaM»eto* 
PJWiWfiitic idaals of cltizoxMOiip SMd^ 
in WoMiXlg l^luBS* Bract! eal hoallll 
iii9tviiiti<M» Sanitatian tann^t t^r p pM* 
tioaX net&ods^ for ©aisiaple aodol vllliasea, 
lioiMi^ ete« tree c£ sir^le vtam6!k0B* 
&wm fop physical defects* 'Traininc for 
tiodily devoloprsent « tu^vepsal piiyaical 
eulttare « gas«d»n iravli« 

4* Propet* balaxioes of diet and nethods Of 



J 



63 



B» The Place of 
Classical In- 
stiruction 



preparing new foods • 
!• The traditilmal subjects to serve the 

practical education In all lower schools . 
8* The cult\H^l studies to give a larger 

vision of life in lower schools, and to be 

given as specialized studies for advanced 

literary training. 
3* English and other languages to be given 

as means of a world outlook. It is not 
essential, but instruction would be 

more definite in English. 
4* Recornraendation that the same proportions 

be used for practical and traditional 

studies as fourwi in Philippines. 



C. Definition of 1. As in the Philippines, the schools be 
Limits for Courses 

defined as Primary, Intermediate and 

Secondary. Beyond this the Hormal 
University and special trade of pro- 
fessional schools. 
2 .The Primary, Intermediate, and Secondary 



64 



BChools to be on the 4-5-4 plan* 
3. Each unit to be complete in itself and 
give a finished education for a certain 
group of pupils. 
4* Each unit provide instruction introduc- 
tory to the next hi^ school. 
D» Eq\iipmant. 1# Adequate school grounds with proper class 

rooms and eqiiipraent* Grounds large 
enough for athletic field and courts. 
Ample room t o provide for practical 
gardens or farms for experimental wark# 
2* Complete laboratory and shop equipments 
and modern tools and implements for the 
garden and farm. 
Z» A revised series of texts to conform to 
the needs of the new type of instruction. 
Use of the Philippine texts. English 
texts \ised if possible. 
Wo cannot say that tliese reccsanendations will achieve 
ftt once the raarveloixs transformaticai in the life of the 
Siamese which has been seen in the whole life of the 



65 



Filipino. But there la no question as to tlie effect 
that will be made. Prcctically notliing has beon or is 
being done to elevate the masoes by improving their 
conditions of life, and they are eager to receive any 
aid we have to offer them and to leai^n all things that 
will improve life conditions in practical things* It 
is the firm conviction of manj', including the vn,^iter# 
that the adoption of ideals, principles, and methods, 
such as have been and are being used in the Philippine 
Islands, will result in a corresponding interest in 
education and In like results in the elevation of the 
people* 



66 



BIBLIOGRAPHY. 

Atkinson, Fred. W. 

The Philippine lalanda. The Athenaexm press. 
New York. 1905. 
Barrows, David P. 

Fourth Annual Report of the Director of Educa- 
tion of the Philippine Islands. Bureau of 
Printing. Manila, Philippine Islands. 1905. 

Fifth Annual Report of the Direotor of Educa- 
tion of the Philippine Islands. Bureau of 
Printing. Manila, Philippine Islands. 1906. 

Sixth Annual Report of the Director of Educa- 
tion of the Philippine Islands. Vol. 1 and 2. 
Bureau of Printing. Manila, Philippine 
Islands. 1907. 

Ninth Annual Report of the Director of Educa- 
tion of the Philippine islands. Bureau of 
Printing. Manila, Philippine islands. 1910. 



67 



Barrow», David P. 

Rittory of the Philippines. Bobba Merrill. 
New York. 1905. 

Report of the Secretary of Publio Instruction 
of Philippine Islands. Manila. 1904. 
Bartlett, Uurray. 

Annual Report of the President of the Univsrs- 
Ity of the Philippines. Bureau of Printing. 
Manila. 1913. 

A UnlYersity for the Filipinos. Inaugural 
Address. Bureau of Printing. Manila. 1911. 

Blair and Robertson. 

Ths Philippine lelands. A.K. Clark & Co., 55 vOls. 
Cleveland, Ohio. 1905. 

Broim, Arthur J. 

The Hew Era in the Philippines. Fleming Revell 
& Co. Hew York. 1903. 

Crone, Frank L. 

t. -Twelfth Annual Report of the Director of Educa- 
tion of Philippine Islands. Bureau of 
Printing. Hanila. 1913. 

Fifteenth Annual Report of the Director of Educa- 
tion of Philippine Islands. Bureau of Printing, 
yanila. 1316. 



68 



Daunoey, Ura. Campbell. 

The Phillppinee. J.B. Mlllat & Co. 1910. 
Devins, John Ba.ncrort. 

An Observer in the Philippines. American 

Tract Society. Now York. 1905. 
Foreman, John. F.R.G.S, 

The Philippine lelande. 2 vole. Sampaon, 

Low, Mareton & Co., Limited. London. 1999. 
Freer er, Wm. B. 

The Philippine E^qieriencoa of an American 

Teacher, Chaa. Scribncr. New York. 1906. 
Goode, J. Paul. 

Our Educational Experiment in the Philippines. 

New England Publishing Co. Boston. 1911. 
Le Roy, Jawes A, 

Philippine Life in To'vn and Country. G,P, 

Putnam Sons. Ne'w York. 1905. 

The Americans in the Philippines. Houghton, 
Mifflin & Co. Sew York. 1914. 
Marquardt, W.W. 

Eighteenth Report of the Director of Education 
of Philippine Islands. Bureau of Printing. 
Manilla. 1913. 



69 



i£iXl«r, John llaurio«. 

Phillppino Folk Lor« Storiss. Ginn & Co. 

Boston. 1904. 
Sanger, Gen. J.P.« U.S.A. 

Population of th« Phil^lpplnet. i Censxia of 1903. 

Bureau of Census, Philippine Islands. 1904. 
Shuster« W. Uorgan 

Sixth Report of the Secretary of Public Inatruo- 

tion. Bureau of Printing. lianila. 1906, 
Twing, Chas. F. 

Education in the Ttax East. Houghton, Mifflin & 

Co. Hew York. 1909, 
Worcester, Dean C. / 

The Philippines Past and Present. UaoUillan 9, 

Co. Rev York. 1914. 
Philippine CoQBsieeion. 

Report to the President of the United States. 4 vols, 

Library of Congress. Washington. 1900. 



70 



Artloltta In Magaainea, Journala, Paaqphlctt, atq. 

A Statemont of Organization and Conditions of Servioa 
in the Bureau of Education. Bureau of Printing. 
Manila. 1911. 

Aaia; 

Qarfield« Jaraea 0. 

Playing Fair with the Philippinea. Hew York. 

May, 1919. (pp. 429-33) 
Kalan, Maxino 

The Promiae of the Phllipplnfta. Sow Tork. 

March, 1931 {pp, 345-8) 
Monroe, I^ul 

The Philippine Teat, Hew York. January, 1930 

ipp, 92-6) 
Enoyolopaedia of Education, Monroe, 
Harrows, David P. 

Philippine Education. 1911. 
Journal ojfir Raoe Development 
Barrowa, David P. 

What May be Expected from Philippine Education, 

Woroeeter, Maaaachuaetta. October, 1910. 



71 



Journal of Znterxuntlonal HolAtions ( of Rao9 Development) 
Benltez, Conrodo. 

The Political Deelree of the Filipino People. 
Worcester, Uaeeaohuaette. October , 1919(pp 
lSl-57) 
P-eld, Gilbert 

Philippine Obaornktlons Woroeeter, M&ei&ohueette. 
January, 1919 (pp. 233-93) 
Shueter, W, Morgan 

Our Philippine Polloiee and Their Reeulte. Woroee- 
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Washburn, Wm. 3. 

Civil Service in the Philippines . Woroetter, 
Uassaohueette. July, 1?10. {jip, 36-57) 
Yule, Emm. Serepta 

Soae Superstitions and Customs of Filipino F&rtaers. 
Vorcester, Ifossachusetts. October, 1919. (pp. 3S3- 
34) 
national Education Association ldl5 Report. Ann Arbor 
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Aiaarica's Work in the Philippines pp. 160-71 

Qeoondary School in Philippine Islands ■» pp. 734-37 
Higher Education in Philippine Islands - pp. 760-62 



i 



72 



Physical Training in Philippines - - pp. 9:M-7 
School Buildlnca and Grounds in 

Philippinae -. - - - * - « pp.l047«51 
Foreoan, North H. 

School Gardens and Sites *- - - pp.955<»9 
.Martinez, Rufino 

Standard School Buildings and Groixnds pp. 955-9 
Miller, mgc H. 

Tbs Dsvftlopiasnt of th« Philippine School 
System in co-operation with ths Home and 
in PvOlation to Industrial Conditions, -pp. 1116-21 
Potter f John D. 

Some Social Ptmses of Vooatlonal 
Education in the Philippines. - - pp. 955-^9 
Service Ifanual of the Bureau of Education 
Bulletin Ho. 41 

Burftau of Printing;. Manila. 1911 
University of Oallfornia Chronicl« 
Arnold, Julian R, 

Education in the Philippine Islands. 
Berkeley. July, 1912. 
Clnitod states Bureau of Education. Bulletin No. 12 
Harquardt, W.^, 

The Philippine Publio School System ppS'^-SS 

Washington, D.C. 1919. 



\ 



I 



73 



PTBLIOOHAPHY ON SUM. 

Cortwrlghtf B.O. 

The Siars<»ge Language In 20th Century Impreesions 
of SlaB. (pp. 31-3-20) 

7reen&n, John H. 

An Oriental Land of the Free iVestminater Press. 
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. 1910. 

Hs.rri», W». 

Article in Reporte of Miaeionary and Benevolent 
Bo&rde of the Presbyterian Churoh in United 
States Aaerioa. (p. 204) Philadelphia, Penn- 
sylvania. 1919, 

Johnson, ^.0. 

Education in 30th Century 

Xnpressions of Slaw - (]pp. S36-34)- Lloyd's 

Greater Britain Publishing Co., Ltd. London. 

1903. 

liaxvell, Norrisan 

Imports, Exports and Shipping i<n 20th Century 
lapresslons of Slan. {v^, 135-44.) 



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